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Know about Mohammad Tanha Andar

Writen by Dr.Nazar Mohammad Sultansei)Sultanzai(Zadran

“I would like to share this information with you all my people as I as a nuclear physicist feel obliged to share this big achievement with my people. An afghan scientist won the first prize among 44 countries in an international research conference”.

هستوي فزیکپوه پوهنیاررحمت الله تنهااندړ

Biography
Mr Tanha is the lecturer of physic at the University of Kabul faculty of science. He is from Ghazni Province and born in Kabul.

He started primary education at home from his father and at the age of 11 after entry examination he entered to the 7th class of school. He started his official education from high school. He finished high school in year 2000 and in 2001 he started his BSc at the department of Physic at the faculty of Science in Kabul University.

Tanha Graduated in 2003 and started his job as a lecturer in 2005 at the same University. He attended international fellowships of nuclear physics and in 2008 he got a scholarships for MSc from Germany. From 2011 to 2014 besides being a lecturer at the university he was the director of nuclear technology applications for the Atomic Energy High Commission of Afghanistan known as AAEHC. Since April 2014 he returned to Germany for his PhD to the University of Hannover.

Mr Tanha attended a seminar in 2014, which was organised by German physicists, and there he presented his research result for the first time as an Afghan. He is the first Afghan attended an International Nuclear Physic Conference. In addition together with Dr Abdulhai Nazifi he wrote two books in Pashto language for Kabul University faculty of science. He is a member of German Physical society as well.

From 2010 to 2011 Mr Tanha worked in the world third biggest particle physics laboratory for a year in Berlin. His research is used as reference in several papers. His articles are in Pashto and English published in scientific journals as well as media.

Mr Tanha is awarded the first research poster prize.

He is the youngest scientist of the country who won the first prize among 44 countries in an International conference. I would like to congratulate all Afghans for such an achievement. And personally as his senior member of the department I would like heartedly to congratulate Mr Tanha. Mr Tanha is an extraordinary talent of Afghanistan and he won this award for the country. This award is granted to the researcher and PhD candidates who present their research in this annual international school.

The research topic of Mr Tanha is about measuring radioactivity in the environment.
As a landlocked country Afghanistan has only 30% of flat land where 12.5% is arable, citizens used their available flat land for cultivation and livestock, therefore caves were constructed on the top of hills and middle of mountains which were used as living houses alongside history. Most of these caves are located in Bamyan, Panjsher, Nangarhar and Logar provinces. Today all of these caves are used as permanent, seasonal and daily working hour shelter by residence, tourists and mine workers. On the other hand due to recent population increase in big cities, basements with bad ventilation system are used as permanent living space as well. Radon gas has an enhanced concentration indoors relative to open air space. Indoor Radon inhalation accounts for more than 40% of the annual dose from natural sources of radiation, meanwhile radon is considered as the second largest reason for lung cancer after the tobacco.

The study covered four living house basements and four caves in Panjsher valley of northern Afghanistan. Four different radon meters with different calibration factors were used for the measurements.

In the above area there in addition to Radon, Uranium U238, Potassium K40, and Thorium Th 232 many other radioactive substances are present which is very harmful to the health of residence.

The prize was awarded for the research topic of how to protect man from the ionizing radiation, which causes cancer. This is the first time that an Afghan researcher is presenting these figures to the world and showing that there is high concentration radon in some environment.

The publication of Afghan Health Ministry shows that cancer is increasing in the last few decades in Afghanistan. The statistics shows that every year more than 20000 cancer cases are reported.

During the Second World War the use of nuclear weapons and the incident of Chernobyl in 1986 clearly show that as a result of nuclear waste the cancer is an increasing problem. Nowadays it has been proved that also X-Rays are one cause of cancer.

I believe that the main cause of cancer in Afghanistan is the use of chemical and radioactive weapons, for example depleted uranium is used in these weapons. Since 1980 in Afghanistan uranium exists in both forms, from which 0.3% is the radioactive isotope U235 and the reaming part is the inert uranium U238. This radioactive uranium emits alpha radioactive ray and these are first class toxic substances. The radioactive uranium is remaining a health hazard for millions of years.

Nowadays it has been proved that radioactive uranium and alpha rays causes cancer. However, the use of chemical weapon is prohibited by the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols form the core of international humanitarian law in 1949, which was signed, among 194 countries. Unfortunately many forces still use such weapons. Research shows that the use of chemical weapons during the war can harm the whole new generation. Babies are born with physical deformation one of the main causes of chemical and biological weapons.

First of all it causes mutation in the chromosome of the foetus. Second the environmental contamination with these chemical and biological radioactive substances causes the physical deformation of newborn babies. Scientists suggest that both reasons correlate with each other and the cancer is also increased as a result of the above reasons.

Some background information on Uranium weapon

In October 2003 an international research conference was held about uranium-based weapons. In this conference, Dr Durakovic the director of Uranium Medical Research of Washington city, presented the fact that in the countries such as Afghanistan Iraq and Yugoslavia hundreds of tons of weapons are used which contains radioactive isotopes of Uranium and Plutonium. Dr Durakovic together with his research fellows had few visits to Afghanistan, where the uranium weapons were used, for example Kabul, Spin Ghar, Jalalabad and many other places which are not know yet. This was due to the complaint of the residents of these areas about an unknown disease.

For example the signs of this illness was chronic pain in bones, weakness, fever, mental disorder, weak vision, headaches, dementia and depression.
The symptoms of this illness are similar to the Gulf Syndrome. However, it has not been proved yet that it may relate to the depletion of uranium in the environment.

This is due to the lack of research and research data about low energy dose of radioactive rays, which is alpha radiation. (There are three types of radioactive radiation Alpha, Beta and Gama. Alpha radiation is the lowest in energy). In addition the responsible government authority of this convention are not ready to peruse a research in this field. This kind of diseases can also occur when chemical and biological weapons are used and people may breath or come in contact to such substances or radiation. The important proposal would be to continue cellular and molecular biology research on the low energy emission ( alpha rays) of radio active substances such as uranium.

Dr Durakovic and his research group found three types of radioactive uranium ( U234, U236 and U238) in blood and urine samples of the residence of above areas of Afghanistan. This work was carried out with a special instrument and standard operation procedure. The result of this finding was analysed by Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPS). This instrument is very sensitive and the accurate, which measures the blood and urine samples in nano gram (10 -9 ) scale.

Figure 1 Uranium concentration in urine sample of American, UK and Afghan resident in one-liter urine. The concentration is in nano gram per liter.

From the diagram it is obvious that the areas in which uranium based weapon are used clearly showing high concentration in urine samples of the subjects. The urine uranium concentration of the affected areas was higher than the areas where the uranium based weapons were not used. This is three times higher in urine and 6 times higher in the environment and exceeding the limit of World Health Organisation (WHO) recommendation for uranium concentration in the environment.

The pride:

Every nation has pride and it is important, we have to recognise and remember our famous and hard working people. The history is keeping such people alive, as it is important for the future generation to know who served best for their country in academic and cultural aspects.

Publications:
• Fundamental of nuclear Physics
• Applied nuclear physics
Unpublished academic literature
• Radiotherapy instrument and the treatment of cancer by M.Tanha and Dr N Sulansei Zadran

Written by Prof. Dr. Nazar M. Sultansei Zadran, Lecturer of Faculty of Science Department of Physics, Kabul University, and former director of Atomic Energy Commission of Afghanistan.
10.09.2015

References:


1. A . Durakovic: Uranium Medical Research Center, Washington DC –USA

2. Dai Williams: “Mystery Metal Nightmare in Afghanistan”, 2002

3. WHO , Depleted Uranium ( Sources, Exposure and Health Effects) , 2001

4. International Atomic Energy Agency Reports Series 2003,Vienna

5. World Uranium Weapons Conference; Hamburg/Germany Oct . 2003

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